About Netherlands

   The Dutch economy is the fifth-largest economy in the euro-zone and is noted for its stable industrial relations, moderate unemployment and inflation, a sizable trade surplus, and an important role as a European transportation hub. Industrial activity is predominantly in food processing, chemicals, petroleum refining, and electrical machinery. A highly mechanized agricultural sector employs only 2% of the laborforce but provides large surplusesfor thefood-processing industry and for exports.The Netherlands, along with 11 of its EU partners, began circulating the euro currency on 1 January 2002.
After 26 years of uninterrupted economie growth, the Dutch economy – highly dependent on an internation al financial sector and international trade- contracted by 3.5% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis.The Dutch financial sector suffered, due in part to the highexposure of some Dutch banks to U.S. mortgage-backed securities. In 2008, the government nationalized two banks and injected billions of dollars of capital into other financial institutions, to prevent further deterioration of a crucial sector. The government also sought to boost the domestic economy by accelerating infrastructure programs, offering corporate tax breaks for employers to retain workers, and expanding export credit facilities. The stimulus programs and bank bailouts, however, resulted in a government budget deficit of 5.3% of GDP in 2010 that contrasted sharply with a surplus of 0.7% in 2008.The govern ment of Prime Minister Mark RUTTE began implementing fiscal consolidation measures in early 2011, mainly reductions in expenditures, which resulted in an improved budget deficit of 3.8% of GDP. In 2012 tax revenues dropped nearly 9%, and GDP contracted. Although jobless claims continued to grow, the unemployment rate remained relatively low at 6.8 percent.
GDP (purchosing power parity):
$709.5billion(2012est.) country comparison to the world: 24 $712.8billion(2011 est.) $705.1 billion(2010est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$770.2billion(2012est.)

GDP – real growth rate:
-0.5% (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 194 1.1% (2011 est.) 1.6% (2010 est.)

GDP – per capita (PPP):
$42,300 (2012 est), country comparison to the world: 21 $42,700 (2011 est.) $42,400 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP – composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.8% industry: 24.1% services: 73.2% (2012 est.)

Labor force:
7.746million(2012est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 2% industry: 18% services: 80% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
6.8% (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 5.8% (2011 est.)

Population belowpoverty line:
10.5% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.9% (1999)

GDP – composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.8% industry:24.1% services: 73.2% (2012 est.)

Labor force:
7.746million(2012est.) country comparison to the world: 62

Labor force – by occupation:
agriculture: 2% industry: 18% services: 80% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate:
6.8% (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 5.8% (2011 est.)

Population belowpoverty line:
10.5% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 22.9% (1999)

Distribution of family income – Gini index: 30.9 (2007) country comparison to the world: 112

Investment (gross fixed):
16.6% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 128

Budget:
revenues: $347.4 billion expenditures: $386.6 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
45.1% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 31

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.1% of GDP (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 158

Public debt:
68.7% of GDP (2012 est.); country comparison to the world: 39 65.1% of GDP (2011 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.4% (2012 est.); country comparison to the world: 49 2.3% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
1.5% (31 December 2012); country comparison to the world: 127 1.75% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank’s rate on the marginal lending faciiity, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2.5% (31 December 2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 176 3.18% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock ofnarrow money:
$375.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 $367.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of braad money:
$1.119trillion(31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 18 $1.088trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Market value ofpublicly traded shares:
$594.7 billion (31 December 2011) country comparison to the world: 18 $661.2 billion (31 December 2010) $542.5 billion (31 December 2009)

Stock ofdomestic credit:
$1.693trillion(31 December 2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 13 $1.644 tri 11 ion (31 December 2011 est.)

Agriculture – products:
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Industries:
agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, construction, microelectronics, fishing

Industrial production growth rate:
-0.6% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 150

Current account balance:
$77.2billion(2012est.) country comparison to the world: 6 $70.92 billion (2011 est.)

Exports:
$556.5 billion (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 7 $550.2 billion (2011 est.)

Exports – commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; foodstuffs

Exports – partners:
Germany 26.2%, Belgium 14.1%, France 9.3%, UK 7.7%, Italy 4.8% (2011)

Imports:
$490.1 billion (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 11 $492.1 billion (2011 est.)

Imports – commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs, clothing

Imports – partners:
Germany 14.5%, China 11.8%, Belgium 8.6%, UK 6.1%, Russia 6%, US 5.9%, France 4% (2011)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$51.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 33 $46.24 billion (2010 est.)

Debt – external:
$2.655 trillion (30 June 2011) country comparison to the world: 7 $3.733 trillion (31 December 2009)

Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar – 0.7838 (2012 est.) 0.7185(2011 est.).” – 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)

Fiscalyear:
calendar year